reducing "Crew-caused"
approach and landing

Pilot-in-charge Monitored Approach

The following documents relevant to PicMA  are available on this site.

NOTE:  this page is still under development. Layout and content will change significantly to make finding information in the archive easier, and many more documents are to be added.  Current order of document list has no signifiance. 


Relevance and download link

Celebrating TAWS ‘Saves’: But lessons still to be learnt.

Illustrates the benefits of having GPWS installed, but makes the point that it won't solve everything.

2007 TAWS Saves.pdf

Airbus Industrie Approach and Landing Accident Reduction Guide

Section 7.3. Acquisition of visual references.

Page 4 of this section contains PicMA procedure.

Airbus ALAR brief 2000.pdf

The Monitored Approach

Believed to be the oldest available statement of the PicMA concept, by Capt. W. Baillie, BEA's General Manager Flight Operations.

Baillie 1964 BEA_Monitored Approach.pdf

To intervene or not to intervene?

Robert Besco paper on the problems generated by historic practices. "The Co-pilot's Catch 22; You are damned if you ignore the Captain's mistakes and you are damned if you do something about them."   (1995)

Besco Co-pilots dilemma.PDF

Analysis of pilots’ monitoring and performance on an automated flight deck

An "academic" study measuring automation use, eye fixations, and pilot mental models.

Boeing Academic 2001 Pilot Automation monitoring.pdf

 Monitoring Matters

Guidance on the Development of Pilot Monitoring Skills. CAA Paper 2013/02. Primarily aimed at Loss of Control events

CAA 2013 Monitoring Matters.pdf

Culture, Error, and Crew Resource Management

Academic paper byHelmreich, Merritt etc.

Describes the influences of three cultures that are relevant to the cockpit: the professional cultures of the pilots, the cultures of organizations, and the national cultures surrounding individuals and their organizations.

Culture, Error, and Crew Resource Management - Helmreich et al 1998.pdf

European guidance material on

Aerodrome operations under limited visibility conditions

ICAO Europe regulations on low visibility operations.

EUR Doc013 - EUR AOP Limited Visibility.pdf

FAA Info for Operators  on CFIT

Recommends use of the joint FAA/ICAO/FSF CFIT training aid

FAA rec to use ICAO CFIT aid.pdf

FedEX HUD FAA Exemption 9984

Integration requirements for use of HUD/EVS on FedEx aircraft, which also use PMA - see below.  

FAA_FedEx EVS ops Decision.pdf

FedEx HUD/PMA Supplemental Information

FAA Docket Number FAA-2008-0370

FedEx Application for reduced minima while using HUD/EVS. P7 describes current implementation of PicMA, noting that integration of HUD/EVS will involve minimal change. /sites/default/files/Documents/Background/FedEx_Express_Corporation_-_Supplemental_Information.pdf

Fake BAW Crew notice 

A mischief-making pseudo-official "British Airways" document on PicMA, created for reasons of industrial politics at the time of the merger of BOAC and BEA in the 1970s. Many versions unfortunately in circulation.   

Fake BA FCIB.pdf

ICAO/FSF/FAA CFIT Education and Training Aid

2.1.6 Allocation of Flight Crew Duties: recommends adoption of PicMA

ICAO FSF FAA CFIT Training Aid.pdf

IFALPA Pilot Training Standards

International Federation of Airline Pilots Associations 2012 guide to best practices in Pilot Training

IFALPA pilot training best practise.pdf

Resource Management on the Flight Deck

Proceedings of a 1979 NAS/Industry Workshop with much valuable material on fundamental problems much of which continue to be in evidence 

NASA 1979 Resource Management on the Flight Deck.pdf

Interaction of Pilot Workload with Errors, Vigilance and Decisions 

NASA 1979 full mission simulation study

NASA 1979 sim study crew errors.pdf

Bad decisions or Bad Luck?

NASA/academic 1998 study of crew errors identified by NTSB. 

NASA 1998 Errors in Aviation Decision Making.pdf

Uncertainty, Stakes and Time in Decision-making

NASA 2000 Study of airline pilot decision-making processes

NASA 2000  Uncertainty & Time in Decision-making.pdf

CRM in a multi-cultural world

NASA 2000 academic study

NASA 2000 Culture in the Cockpit.pdf

Checklists and Monitoring: why defences fail

NASA 2010 study of failures to catch problems despite use of checklists and monitoring processes

NASA 2010 cockpit monitoring study.pdf

NTSB Safety recommendation

1994 NTSB Accident study with special emphasis on monitoring/challenging issues 

NTSB 1994 Crew error study.pdf

Boeing Monitoring issues 

presentation to RAeS 2013

Philip Adrian RAES March 19 20 2013 rev 1.pptx

RAE Contribution to All-weather Landing

2011 History of Blind Landing Experimental Unit etc. activity

RAE 2011 BLEU low visibility history.pdf

All Weather Operations Guide 

Royal Aeronautical Society detailed single source handbook for pilots on all aspects of AWO.

RAES 2010 All Weather Operations Guide.pdf

Enhancing Crew Monitoring and Cross-checking

NTSB 2009 presentation by Bob Sumwalt, emphasising  need for more emphasis on monitoring as positive activity

Sumwalt NTSB Monitoring and Crosschecking .pdf

AC 0237

Transport Canada 2006 Advisory Circular on Approach Ban criteria

Transport Canada 2006 AC 0237 Approach Ban.pdf

AC 0239

Transport Canada Advisory Circular pointying out that PicMA may improve transition and overall decision-making, and that its use may result in reduced RVR minima.

Transport Canada 2006 AC 0239 PMA.pdf


USAF 1970 Landing Weather Minimums Investigation.

USAF 1972 IPIS Weather minimum study.pdf


NTSB 1976 Special Study of US Instrument Approach Accidents sites/default/files/Documents/Background/NTSB%201976%20Poor%20weather%20accidents%20study%20AAS%2076-5.pdf