reducing "Crew-caused"
approach and landing

Pilot-in-charge Monitored Approach

The "Monitored Approach" (PicMA) procedure has been developed to tackle the three principal contributory factors to "crew-caused" approach and landing accident causes. This wbsite discusses the basic technical aspects involved from a practical pilot's viewpoint, although more abstract technical papers etc. may be referenced. These aspects are crew failures in relation to 

Most "crew-caused" accidents involve at least one of these factors and many involve all three.  

A significant part of the material, especially in the "transition to visual reference" section, has been adapted from previous documents, for which I gratefully acknowledge the authors. The three basic subject areas - visual transition, approach management, and monitoring effectiveness - are dealt with separately but obviously contain many overlapping aspects.